Melania Trump Club

Melania Trump Club
Melania Trump Club

Saturday, May 14, 2011

Derek Boogaard

Derek Boogaard June 23, 1982 – May 13, 2011 was a Canadian professional ice hockey left winger who played for the Minnesota Wild and the New York Rangers of the National Hockey League (NHL). Known primarily as a fighter and enforcer, he was nicknamed the "Boogeyman" and "The Mountie". A 2007 survey of NHL players showed that Boogaard was the second most intimidating player in the NHL, behind the now retired Georges Laraque then of the Pittsburgh Penguins.

Role as an enforcer
Boogaard's knockout of fellow enforcer Todd Fedoruk in a fight during a game against the Anaheim Ducks helped spark debate over increasing the punishment for fighting in the NHL. During this fight, Boogaard landed a brutal punch to the cheek sending Fedoruk to the ice. As a result, Fedoruk had to undergo surgery to reconstruct his shattered cheek using titanium plates. Fedoruk and Boogaard would later become teammates in Minnesota during the 2007–08 season. In 2005, Boogaard knocked out Mighty Ducks' enforcer Trevor Gillies with an uppercut to the jaw.
Boogaard was noted for a humorous incident that happened during the Wild's prospects camp prior to the 2001–02 season. When trying to check another player on the ice, Boogaard missed him and crashed into the boards with such force that he went through a pane of glass and over the boards. Boogaard stepped back onto the ice later and a replacement pane was adorned with a drawing of a person; A stick figure with the arms raised giving the impression of being plastered against the glass.

Playing career
Boogaard played Major Junior Hockey in the Western Hockey League (WHL) for the Regina Pats, Prince George Cougars and Medicine Hat Tigers. After recording 9 points and 245 penalty minutes with the Cougars in 2000–01, he was drafted in the 7th round, 202nd overall, by the Minnesota Wild in the 2001 NHL Entry Draft.
Midway through the 2002–03 season, he turned pro and joined the Louisiana IceGators of the East Coast Hockey League (ECHL). He then spent two seasons with the Houston Aeros before earning a roster spot with the Wild in 2005–06.
By the end of 2009 Boogaard had played four and a half seasons with the Wild tallying 2 goals (both scored in his first season) and 492 penalty minutes.
On March 7, 2010, Boogaard was suspended for 2 games for a knee on knee hit to Edmonton Oilers forward Ryan Jones.
On July 1, 2010, Boogaard signed with the New York Rangers for $6.5 million over four years.

Career statistics

Regular season Playoffs
Season Team League GP G A Pts PIM GP G A Pts PIM
1999–00 Regina Pats WHL 5 0 0 0 17
1999–00 Prince George Cougars WHL 33 0 0 0 149
2000–01 Prince George Cougars WHL 61 1 8 9 245 6 1 0 1 31
2001–02 Prince George Cougars WHL 2 0 0 0 16
2001–02 Medicine Hat Tigers WHL 46 1 8 9 178
2002–03 Medicine Hat Tigers WHL 27 1 2 3 65
2002–03 Louisiana IceGators ECHL 33 1 2 3 240 2 0 0 0 0
2003–04 Houston Aeros AHL 53 0 4 4 207 2 0 1 1 16
2004–05 Houston Aeros AHL 56 1 4 5 259 5 0 0 0 38
2005–06 Minnesota Wild NHL 65 2 4 6 158
2006–07 Minnesota Wild NHL 48 0 1 1 120 4 0 1 1 20
2007–08 Minnesota Wild NHL 34 0 0 0 74 6 0 0 0 24
2008–09 Minnesota Wild NHL 51 0 3 3 87
2009–10 Minnesota Wild NHL 57 0 4 4 105
2010–11 New York Rangers NHL 22 1 1 2 45
NHL totals 277 3 13 16 589 10 0 1 1 44

On May 13, 2011 Derek Boogaard was found dead in his Minneapolis apartment by family members. He was aged 28 and was a month and ten days short of his 29th birthday.

Annette Joanne Funicello

Annette Joanne Funicello (born October 22, 1942) is an American singer and actress. She was Walt Disney's most popular cast member of The Mickey Mouse Club, and went on to appear in a series of beach party films.

Actress and singer
After the Mickey Mouse Club she remained under contract with Disney for a time, with television roles in Zorro, Elfego Baca and The Horsemasters. For Zorro she played Anita Cabrillo in a three-episode storyline about a teen-aged girl who arrives in Los Angeles to visit a father who does not seem to exist. This role was reportedly a birthday present from Walt Disney, and the first of two different characters played opposite Guy Williams as Zorro. Annette also co-starred in Disney-produced movies such as The Shaggy Dog, Babes in Toyland, The Misadventures of Merlin Jones, and The Monkey's Uncle.
Although uncomfortable being thought of as a singer, Annette had a number of pop record hits in the late 1950s and early 1960s, mostly written by the Sherman Brothers and including: "Tall Paul," "First Name Initial," "O Dio Mio," "Train of Love" (written by Paul Anka) and "Pineapple Princess." They were released by Disney's Buena Vista label. Annette also recorded "It's Really Love" in 1959, a reworking of an earlier Paul Anka song called "Toot Sweet"; Anka reworked the song for a third time in 1962 as "Johnny's Theme" and it opened The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson on television for the next three decades. In an episode of the Disney anthology television series titled "Disneyland After Dark," Annette can be seen singing live at Disneyland. Walt Disney was reportedly a fan of 1950s pop star Teresa Brewer and tried to pattern Annette's singing in the same style. However, Funicello credits "the Annette sound" to her record producer, Tutti Camarata, who worked for Disney in that era. Camarata had her double-track her vocals, matching her first track as closely as possible on the second recording to achieve a fuller sound than her voice would otherwise produce. Early in her career, she appeared on the NBC interview program Here's Hollywood.

Early life and early stardom
Annette Joanne Funicello was born in Utica, New York to Italian-Americans Joseph and Virginia Funicello. Her family moved to Southern California when she was four years old. Funicello took dancing and music lessons as a child to overcome shyness. In 1955, the 12-year-old was discovered by Walt Disney when she performed as the Swan Queen in Swan Lake at a dance recital in Burbank, California. Disney cast her as one of the original "Mouseketeers". She was the last to be selected, and the only one personally picked by Walt Disney himself. She proved to be very popular and by the end of the first season of Mickey Mouse Club, she was receiving 6,000 letters a month, according to her Disney Legends biography.

Funicello was married to her first husband, Jack Gilardi, from 1965 until 1981. They had three children: Gina (b. 1966), Jack, Jr. (b. 1970) and Jason (b. 1974). In 1986, she married California harness racing horse breeder/trainer Glen Holt. Annette and Glen were frequently seen at Los Alamitos Race Course and at Fairplex in Pomona in the 1980s and 1990s attending harness horse races.
In 1987, Annette reunited with Frankie Avalon for a series of promotional concerts to promote their film Back to the Beach. She began to suffer from dizzy spells, but kept her failing health from her family.
Funicello announced in 1992 that she suffers from multiple sclerosis. She had kept her condition a secret for many years, but felt it necessary to go public to combat rumors that her impaired ability to walk was the result of alcoholism. That same year, she was inducted as a Disney Legend. In 1993, she opened the Annette Funicello Fund for Neurological Disorders at the California Community Foundation.
Funicello's best friend is Shelley Fabares. She and Fabares have been friends since they were young teenagers, and Fabares was a bridesmaid at Funicello's first wedding. She is also very close to fellow Mouseketeers Sharon Baird, Doreen Tracey, and her "Beach" movies co-star, Frankie Avalon.
Her autobiography, published in 1994, is A Dream Is a Wish Your Heart Makes: My Story. The title is taken from a song from the Disney movie Cinderella. A made-for-TV movie based on the book, A Dream Is a Wish Your Heart Makes: The Annette Funicello Story, was made in 1995. In the final scene, the actress portraying Funicello (Eva LaRue), riding in a wheelchair, is turned away from the camera — turning back, it is Funicello herself, who delivers a message to a group of children. During this period she also produced her own line of teddy bears for the Annette Funicello Collectible Bear Company. The last collection in the series was made in 2004. She also has her own fragrance, "Cello by Annette.

Beach icon and spokeswoman
She moved on from Disney to become a teen idol, starring in a series of "Beach Party" movies with Frankie Avalon for American International Pictures. These included Beach Party, Muscle Beach Party, Bikini Beach, Beach Blanket Bingo, How to Stuff a Wild Bikini and Pajama Party.
When she was cast in her first beach movie, Walt Disney requested that she only wear modest bathing suits and keep her navel covered. However, she wore a pink two-piece in Beach Party, a white two-piece fishnet suit in the second film (Muscle Beach Party) and a blue and white bikini in the third (Bikini Beach). All three swimsuits bared her navel, particularly in Bikini Beach, where it is visible extensively during close up shots in a sequence early in the film when she meets Frankie Avalon's "Potato Bug" character outside his tent.
She and Avalon became iconic as "beach picture" stars and were re-united in 1987 for the Paramount film Back to the Beach, parodying their own surf-and-sand films two decades earlier. They toured the country as a singing act.
In 1979, Funicello began starring in a series of television commercials for Skippy peanut butter.

NY Rangers' Boogaard dies at 28

News was first reported by Michael Russo of the Minneapolis Star Tribune who said that Boogaard was found dead at his apartment in Minneapolis on Friday.
“Derek was an extremely kind and caring individual,” said New York Rangers president and general manager Glen Sather in a statement on the team's website. “He was a very thoughtful person, who will be dearly missed by all those who knew him. We extend our deepest sympathies to his family, friends and teammates during this difficult time.

The Star Tribune newspaper in Minneapolis first reported Boogaard was found dead in his home by members of his family. The Hennepin County Medical Examiner's office in Minnesota confirmed those details and said an autopsy was pending.

"Derek was an extremely kind and caring individual," Rangers president and general manager Glen Sather said. "He was a very thoughtful person, who will be dearly missed by all those who knew him. We extend our deepest sympathies to his family, friends and teammates during this difficult time.

Taken 202nd overall in the 2001 entry draft by the Minnesota Wild, Boogaard appeared in 255 career games with the team from 2005-10.
"The Minnesota Wild organization sends our deepest sympathies to the family of Derek Boogaard," team said in a statement. "Derek was a fan favorite during his five seasons with the Wild and will be greatly missed here in Minnesota and throughout the NHL. Our thoughts and prayers go out to the Boogaard family during this tragic time of loss.

In 277 games, Boogaard recorded 3 goals. He was a fan-favorite for his fighting, and a clubhouse favorite for his personality.

As autopsy results are pending, one can only hope that the concussion that led to 52 missed games this season was not at the root of Boogaard’s death. Depression is often linked to blows to the head and concussions, particularly in boxers. As a fighter, Boogaard may have experienced some of these symptoms.

Outlook for China Luxury

China are going up. For some that means a stop at the local fast food restaurant is affordable, for others, it has created a pension for brand names, expensive cars and glitzy jewelry.

McKinsey, a management consultancy, recently reported it expects China will account for 20 percent of the world's luxury goods in just four years. By then, it says, the luxury market could be worth 27 billion dollars.

Rapid increases in wealth, and shifting social mores that sanction the display of that wealth, are driving a growing infatuation for luxury goods among Chinese consumers.”
“Access to an explosion of information on the Internet, an increasing penchant for overseas travel, and first-hand experience purchasing and consuming luxury goods are contributing to a substantial rise in sophistication among luxury consumers in China. Contrary to popular belief, a growing number of Chinese luxury consumers are exhibiting a noticeable trend away from overt displays of wealth, and towards more understated forms of luxury consumption.”
“Rapid urbanization and growing wealth outside of China’s largest cities is driving the emergence of several new geographic markets with sizeable pools of luxury goods consumers. Over the next 5 years, [McKinsey] expects that the number of such cities will double from 30-60.

Ushering into 2011, China, serving as a niche market, is more than just prosperity. It is believed that China’s luxury market has transformed from ‘land-rush’ to ‘ROI focus’. It is urgent for key market players to have in-depth knowledge of ‘China’s rule’. How to cultivate specific brandculture catering to local consumers? How to efficiently build brand image and grant to consumers? What is the ideal retailing solution for variant consumers? How to do ideal CRM in a niche market? It is certain that luxury consumption in China is more than purchasing but purchasing culture, spirit, life sytle of luxury brands.

Core luxury buyers: Affluent households that spend 12 to 20% of their income on luxury goods per year ($22,000 to $66,000).

Luxury role models: Young and fashionable, most are self-employed or corporate executives living in Beijing or Shanghai. They buy to indulge themselves and seek to feel unique rather than show off their wealth.

Fashion fanatics: Middle class, typically in junior to mid-level positions; includes some housewives. They spend a disproportionate amount of income on luxury, and have a stronger “enjoy now” mindset, willing to buy on credit. They also exert a strong influence on other consumers, sharing their purchases and opinions in social circles and online.

Middle-class aspirants: Middle class living in Tier 2/3 cities. They are infrequent buyers of luxury products. Purchasing luxury goods makes them feel successful and fulfills aspirations of belonging in a higher social circle. They are also less knowledgeable about luxury brands and thus are more cautious spenders.

jewish heritage trips

Jewish Heritage trips, that this great Ashkenazi legacy must be retained as a vital dimension of contemporary Jewish life, and it is our sincere privilege to make it accessible to you through our distinctive and much-lauded cultural tours.

Poland Jewish trips showcases a millennium of Jewish history through visits to historical sites; participation in genealogical field research about family histories; celebrations of religious and secular traditions; meetings with Jewish leaders, politicians and the media; and outings to cultural events and historic commemorations such as Yom HaShoah and the annual April 19th ceremony honoring the heroes of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising.

Discover the essence of Jewish Eastern Europe, from the tragic history of the Holocaust to the hopes and prayers of the rebuilt Jewish communities. With the guidance and knowledge of the Eastern Europe tour educator, you will gain an in-depth understanding of how the European Jews handled their inconceivable predicament, while learning about their communities prior to World War Two. Travel back through time to this troubling period of Jewish history, while exploring the wonders and mysteries of the time and place.

People who have participated in similar trips with the Taube Foundation for Jewish Life & Culture, the founder of Poland Jewish Heritage Tours, often describe their experiences as deeply moving and even life-changing. California film producer Susan Libitzky said that seeing Poland "through Tad Taube's eyes and experiencing Poland through his vision and passion was a most special opportunity." The experience allowed her to "expand her thinking, be inspired, and meet exceptional people.

Corrupt American corporate legislation

Just think about 100 Senators and 435 Representatives total numbers representative are 441 with 5 Delegates and one Resident.

If any corporation invest on 50% members one million dollars per member.The total amount will be 220.5 millions Dollars. After that they can make law as corporation want with 25% support of natural agreed members.Simply "that corporation" will "Get benefits" of just some "Billions" only.

Estimated War-Related Costs, Iraq and Afghanistan

Estimated Costs of war in Afghanistan 2011

119.4 Billions US$

Estimated Costs of war in Iraq 2011

51.1 Billions US$

Currently, the United States consumes 19.6 million barrels per day, of oil, which is more than 25% of the world's total.

If Congressman or Senator talk angrily on Middle east the oil prices will rise again.

If oil prices rise only 1$ per "Barrel" Poor corporations just get 19.6 US$ million per day only##########

Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with Amendments as on other Bills. ”
This establishes the method for making Acts of Congress. Accordingly, any bill may originate in either House of Congress, except for a revenue bill, which may originate only in the House of Representatives. In practice, the Senate can simply circumvent this requirement by substituting the text of any bill previously passed by the House with the text of a revenue bill, as was done with H.R. 1424 or the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982. When the Senate sends an appropriation bill to the House, the House may return it to the Senate with a blue slip, thereby settling the question in practice. Either House may amend any bill, including revenue and appropriation bills.
The Origination Clause stems from an English parliamentary requirement that all money bills start from the House of Commons; it was intended to ensure that the "power of the purse" lies with the legislative body closer to the people. The clause was also part of a compromise between small and large states: the latter were unhappy with equal representation in the Senate.

What did you think about US budget 2011?
Where are we (Americans).....................?

Friday, May 13, 2011

Cloud chamber

Cloud chamber, also known as the Wilson chamber, is used for detecting particles of ionizing radiation. In its most basic form, a cloud chamber is a sealed environment containing a supersaturated vapor of water or alcohol. When an alpha or beta particle interacts with the mixture, it ionizes it. The resulting ions act as condensation nuclei, around which a mist will form (because the mixture is on the point of condensation). The high energies of alpha and beta particles mean that a trail is left, due to many ions being produced along the path of the charged particle. These tracks have distinctive shapes (for example, an alpha particle's track is broad and shows more evidence of deflection by collisions, while an electron's is thinner and straight.). When any uniform magnetic field is applied across the cloud chamber, positively and negatively charged particles will curve in opposite directions, according to the Lorentz force law with two particles of opposite charge. For more detailed track-shape information.
Charles Thomson Rees Wilson (1869–1959), a Scottish physicist, is credited with inventing the cloud chamber. Inspired by sightings of the Brocken spectre while working on the summit of Ben Nevis in 1894, he began to develop expansion chambers for studying cloud formation and optical phenomena in moist air. Very rapidly he discovered that ions could act as centers for water droplet formation in such chambers. He pursued the application of this discovery and perfected the first cloud chamber in 1911. In Wilson's original chamber the air inside the sealed device was saturated with water vapor, then a diaphragm is used to expand the air inside the chamber (adiabatic expansion). This cools the air and water vapor starts to condense. When an ionizing particle passes through the chamber, water vapor condenses on the resulting ions and the trail of the particle is visible in the vapor cloud. Wilson, along with Arthur Compton, received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1927 for his work on the cloud chamber. This kind of chamber is also called a Pulsed Chamber, because the conditions for operation are not continuously maintained. Developments were made by Patrick Blackett who utilised a stiff spring to expand and compress the chamber very rapidly, making the chamber sensitive to particles several times a second. The cloud chamber was the first radioactivity detector.

Structure and Working of Cloud chamber

Simple cloud chamber consists of the parts sealed environment, radioactive source (if you want to), dry ice or a cold plate and some kind of alcohol source (it has to allow easy evaporation)
Lightweight methyl alcohol vapour saturates the chamber. The alcohol falls as it cools down and the cold condenser provides a steep temperature gradient. The result is a supersaturated environment. The alcohol vapour condenses around ion trails left behind by the travelling ionizing particles. The result is cloud formation, seen in the cloud chamber by the presence of droplets falling down to the condenser. As particles pass through the chamber they leave ionization trails and because the alcohol vapour is supersaturated it condenses onto these trails. Since the tracks are emitted radially out from the source, their point of origin can easily be determined.
Just above the cold condenser plate there is an area of the chamber which is sensitive to radioactive tracks. At this height, most of the alcohol has not condensed. This means that the ion trail left by the radioactive particles provides an optimal trigger for condensation and cloud formation. This sensitive area is increased in height by employing a steep temperature gradient, little convection, and very stable conditions. A strong electric field is often used to draw cloud tracks down to the sensitive region of the chamber and increase the sensitivity of the chamber. While tracks from sources can still be seen without a voltage supply, background tracks are very difficult to observe. In addition, the voltage can also serve to prevent large amounts of "rain" from obscuring the sensitive region of the chamber,caused by condensation forming above the sensitive area of the chamber. This means that ion trails left by radioactive particles are obscured by constant precipitation. The black background makes it easier to observe cloud tracks.
Before tracks can be visible, a tangential light source is needed. This illuminates the white droplets against the black background. Drops should be viewed from a horizontal position. If the chamber is working correctly, tiny droplets should be seen condensing. Often this condensation is not apparent until a shallow pool of alcohol is formed at the condenser plate. The tracks become much more obvious once temperatures and conditions have stabilized in the chamber. This requires the elimination of any significant drift currents (poor chamber sealing)

Cloud seeding system

Most common chemicals used for cloud seeding include silver iodide and dry ice (frozen carbon dioxide). The expansion of liquid propane into a gas has also been used and can produce ice crystals at higher temperatures than silver iodide. The use of hygroscopic materials, such as salt, is increasing in popularity because of some promising research results.
Seeding of clouds requires that they contain supercooled liquid water—that is, liquid water colder than zero degrees Celsius. Introduction of a substance such as silver iodide, which has a crystalline structure similar to that of ice, will induce freezing nucleation. Dry ice or propane expansion cools the air to such an extent that ice crystals can nucleate spontaneously from the vapor phase. Unlike seeding with silver iodide, this spontaneous nucleation does not require any existing droplets or particles because it produces extremely high vapor supersaturations near the seeding substance. However, the existing droplets are needed for the ice crystals to grow into large enough particles to precipitate out.
In mid-latitude clouds, the usual seeding strategy has been predicated upon the fact that the equilibrium vapor pressure is lower over ice than over water. When ice particles form in supercooled clouds, this fact allows the ice particles to grow at the expense of liquid droplets. If there is sufficient growth, the particles become heavy enough to fall as snow (or, if melting occurs, rain) from clouds that otherwise would produce no precipitation. This process is known as "static" seeding.
Seeding of warm-season or tropical cumulonimbus (convective) clouds seeks to exploit the latent heat released by freezing. This strategy of "dynamic" seeding assumes that the additional latent heat adds buoyancy, strengthens updrafts, ensures more low-level convergence, and ultimately causes rapid growth of properly selected clouds.
Cloud seeding chemicals may be dispersed by aircraft (as in the second figure) or by dispersion devices located on the ground (generators, as in first figure, or canisters fired from anti-aircraft guns or rockets). For release by aircraft, silver iodide flares are ignited and dispersed as an aircraft flies through the inflow of a cloud. When released by devices on the ground, the fine particles are carried downwind and upwards by air currents after release.
An electronic mechanism was tested in 2010, when infrared laser pulses were directed to the air above Berlin by researchers from the University of Geneva. The experimenters posited that the pulses would encourage atmospheric sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide to form particles that would then act as seeds.

Effectiveness of Cloud seeding

Referring to the 1903, 1915, 1919 and 1944 and 1947 weather modification experiments, the Australian Federation of Meteorology discounted "rain making." By the 1950s the CSIRO Division of Radiophysics switched to investigating the physics of clouds and had hoped by 1957 to better understand these processes. By the 1960s the dreams of weather making had faded only to be re-ignited post-corporatisation of the Snowy Mountains Scheme in order to achieve "above target" water. This would provide enhanced energy generation and profits to the public agencies who are the principal owners. Cloud seeding has been shown to be effective in altering cloud structure and size and in converting supercooled liquid water to ice particles. The amount of precipitation due to seeding is difficult to quantify. Cloud seeding may also suppress precipitation.
A key challenge is in discerning how much precipitation would have occurred had clouds not been seeded. Overall, there is general expectation that winter cloud seeding over mountains will produce snow, expressed by professional organizations. There is statistical evidence for seasonal precipitation increases of about 10% with winter seeding.
The US government through its National Center for Atmospheric Research has analyzed seeded and unseeded clouds to understand the differences between them, and has conducted seeding research in other countries.
Clouds were seeded during the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing using rockets, so that there would be no rain during the opening and closing ceremonies. although others dispute their claims of success.

History of Cloud seeding

Vincent Schaefer (1906–1993) discovered the principle of cloud seeding in July 1946 through a series of serendipitous events. Following ideas generated between himself and Nobel laureate Irving Langmuir while climbing Mt. Washington in New Hampshire, Schaefer, Langmuir's research associate, created a way of experimenting with supercooled clouds using a deep freeze unit of potential agents to stimulate ice crystal growth, i.e., salt, talcum powder, soils, dust and various chemical agents with minor effect. Then one hot and humid July 14, 1946, he wanted to try a few experiments at General Electric's Schenectady Research Lab. He was dismayed to find that the deep freezer was not cold enough to produce a "cloud" using breath air. He decided to move the process along by adding a chunk of dry ice just to lower the temperature of his experimental chamber. To his astonishment, as soon as he breathed into the deep freezer, a bluish haze was noted, followed by an eye-popping display of millions of microscopic ice crystals, reflecting the strong light rays from the lamp illuminating a cross-section of the chamber. He instantly realized that he had discovered a way to change supercooled water into ice crystals. The experiment was easily replicated and he explored the temperature gradient to establish the −40˚Climit for liquid water.
Within the month, Schaefer's colleague, the noted atmospheric scientist Dr. Bernard Vonnegut (brother of novelist Kurt Vonnegut) is credited with discovering another method for "seeding" supercooled cloud water. Vonnegut accomplished his discovery at the desk, looking up information in a basic chemistry text and then tinkering with silver and iodide chemicals to produce silver iodide. Together with Dr. Vonnegut, Professor Henry Chessin, SUNY Albany, a crystallographer, co-authored a publication in Science Magazine [17] and received a patent in 1975. Both methods were adopted for use in cloud seeding during 1946 while working for the General Electric Corporation in the state of New York. Schaefer's altered a cloud's heat budget, Vonnegut's altered formative crystal structure – an ingenious property related to a good match in lattice constant between the two types of crystal. (The crystallography of ice later played a role in Kurt Vonnegut's novel Cat's Cradle.) The first attempt to modify natural clouds in the field through "cloud seeding" began during a flight that began in upstate New York on 13 November 1946. Schaefer was able to cause snow to fall near Mount Greylock in western Massachusetts, after he dumped six pounds of dry ice into the target cloud from a plane after a 60-mile easterly chase from the Schenectady County Airport.
Dry ice and silver iodide agents are effective in changing the physical chemistry of supercooled clouds, thus useful in augmentation of winter snowfall over mountains and under certain conditions, and lightning and hail suppression. While not a new technique, hygroscopic seeding for enhancement of rainfall in warm clouds is enjoying a revival, based on some positive indications from research in South Africa, Mexico, and elsewhere. The hygroscopic material most commonly used is salt. It is postulated that hygroscopic seeding causes the droplet size spectrum in clouds to become more maritime (bigger drops) and less continental, stimulating rainfall through coalescence. From March 1967 until July 1972, the U.S. military's Operation Popeye cloud-seeded silver iodide to extend the monsoon season over North Vietnam, specifically the Ho Chi Minh Trail. The operation resulted in the targeted areas seeing an extension of the monsoon period an average of 30 to 45 days. The 54th Weather Reconnaissance Squadron carried out the operation to "make mud, not war.
In 1969 at the Woodstock Festival, various people claimed to have witnessed clouds being seeded by the U.S. military. This was said to be the cause of the rain which lasted throughout most of the festival.

Cloud seeding In United States

The United States, cloud seeding is used to increase precipitation in areas experiencing drought, to reduce the size of hailstones that form in thunderstorms, and to reduce the amount of fog in and around airports. Cloud seeding is also occasionally used by major ski resorts to induce snowfall. Eleven western states and one Canadian province (Alberta) have ongoing weather modification operational programs . In January 2006, an $8.8 million cloud seeding project began in Wyoming to examine the effects of cloud seeding on snowfall over Wyoming's Medicine Bow, Sierra Madre, and Wind River mountain ranges.
A number of commercial companies, such as Aero Systems Incorporated , Atmospherics Incorporated , North American Weather Consultants , Weather Modification Incorporated , Weather Enhancement Technologies International , Seeding Operations and Atmospheric Research (SOAR) , offer weather modification services centered on cloud seeding. The USAF proposed its use on the battlefield in 1996, although the U.S. signed an international treaty in 1978 banning the use of weather modification for hostile purposes.
During the sixties, Irving P. Krick & Associates operated a successful cloud seeding operation in the area around Calgary, Alberta. This utilized both aircraft and ground-based generators that pumped silver iodide into the atmosphere in an attempt to reduce the threat of hail damage. Ralph Langeman, Lynn Garrison, and Stan McLeod, all ex-members of the RCAF's 403 Squadron, attending the University of Alberta, spent their summers flying hail suppression. A number of surplus Harvard aircraft were fitted with racks under each wing containing 32 railroad fuzees that were impregnated with silver iodide. These could be ignited individually or all at once, depending upon the threat. In coordination with ground units, the aircraft would lay a plume of silver iodide in front of approaching cumulo-nimbus clouds with noticeable effect. Large, active CBs were reduced to nothing. Heavy hail storms were reduced in intensity. This effective program was funded by farmer contributions and government grants.

Cloud seeding In Europe

Cloud seeding was begun in France during the 1950s with the intent of reducing hail damage to crops. The ANELFA project consists of local agencies acting within a non-profit organization. A similar project in Spain is managed by the Consorcio por la Lucha Antigranizo de Aragon. The success of the French program was supported by insurance data; that of the Spanish program in studies conducted by the Spanish Agricultural Ministry.
Soviet military pilots seeded clouds over the Byelorussian SSR after the Chernobyl disaster to remove radioactive particles from clouds heading toward Moscow. At the July 2006 G8 Summit, President Putin commented that air force jets had been deployed to seed incoming clouds so they rained over Finland. Rain drenched the summit anyway. In Moscow, the Russian Airforce tried seeding clouds with bags of cement on June 17, 2008. One of the bags did not pulverize and went through the roof of a house. In October 2009, the Mayor of Moscow promised a "winter without snow" for the city after revealing efforts by the Russian Air Force to seed the clouds upwind from Moscow throughout the winter.

Cloud seeding In Asia

The largest cloud seeding system in the world is that of the People's Republic of China, which believes that it increases the amount of rain over several increasingly arid regions, including its capital city, Beijing, by firing silver iodide rockets into the sky where rain is desired. There is even political strife caused by neighboring regions which accuse each other of "stealing rain" using cloud seeding. About 24 countries currently practice weather modification operationally. China used cloud seeding in Beijing just before the 2008 Olympic Games in order to clear the air of pollution, but there are disputes regarding the Chinese claims. In February 2009, China also blasted iodide sticks over Beijing to artificially induce snowfall after four months of drought, and blasted iodide sticks over other areas of northern China to increase snowfall. The snowfall in Beijing lasted for approximately three days and led to the closure of 12 main roads around Beijing. At the end of October 2009 Beijing claimed it had its earliest snowfall since 1987 due to cloud seeding.
In Southeast Asia, open burning produces haze that pollutes the regional environment. Cloud-seeding has been used to improve the air quality by encouraging rainfall. In India, cloud seeding operations were conducted during the years 2003 and 2004 through U.S. based Weather Modification Inc. in state of Maharashtra. In 2008, there are plans for 12 districts of state of Andhra Pradesh.

Cloud seeding In Australia

In Australia, CSIRO’s activities in Tasmania in the 1960s were successful. Seeding over the Hydro-Electricity Commission catchment area on the Central Plateau achieved rainfall increases as high as 30% in autumn. The Tasmanian experiments were so successful that the Commission has regularly undertaken seeding ever since in mountainous parts of the State.
In 2004, Snowy Hydro Limited began a trial of cloud seeding to assess the feasibility of increasing snow precipitation in the Snowy Mountains in Australia. The test period, originally scheduled to end in 2009, was later extended to 2014. The New South Wales (NSW) Natural Resources Commission, responsible for supervising the cloud seeding operations, believes that the trial may have difficulty establishing statistically whether cloud seeding operations are increasing snowfall. This project was discussed at a summit in Narrabri, NSW on 1 December 2006. The summit met with the intention of outlining a proposal for a 5 year trial, focussing on Northern NSW.
The various implications of such a widespread trial were discussed, drawing on the combined knowledge of several worldwide experts, including representatives from the Tasmanian Hydro Cloud Seeding Project however does not make reference to former cloud seeding experiments by the then Snowy Mountains Authority which rejected weather modification. The trial required changes to NSW environmental legislation in order to facilitate placement of the cloud seeding apparatus. The modern experiment is not supported for the Australian Alps.
In December 2006, the Queensland government of Australia announced A$7.6 million in funding for "warm cloud" seeding research to be conducted jointly by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology and the United States National Center for Atmospheric Research. Outcomes of the study are hoped to ease continuing drought conditions in the states South East region.

Cloud seeding

Cloud seeding, a form of weather modification, is the attempt to change the amount or type of precipitation that falls from clouds, by dispersing substances into the air that serve as cloud condensation or ice nuclei, which alter the microphysical processes within the cloud. The usual intent is to increase precipitation (rain or snow), but hail and fog suppression are also widely practiced in airports.
Terpenes are released by trees more actively during warmer weather, acting as a natural form of cloud seeding. The clouds reflect sunlight, allowing the forest to regulate its temperature.

With an NFPA 704 rating of Blue 2, silver iodide can cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury to humans and mammals with intense or continued but not chronic exposure. However, there have been several detailed ecological studies that showed negligible environmental and health impacts. The toxicity of silver and silver compounds (from silver iodide) was shown to be of low order in some studies. These findings likely result from the minute amounts of silver generated by cloud seeding, which are 100 times less than industry emissions into the atmosphere in many parts of the world, or individual exposure from tooth fillings.
Accumulations in the soil, vegetation, and surface runoff have not been large enough to measure above natural background. A 1995 environmental assessment in the Sierra Nevada of California and a 2004 independent panel of experts (an overview only is presented in the executive summary of the research) in Australia confirmed these earlier findings.
Cloud seeding over Kosciuszko National Park - a Biosphere Reserve - is problematic in that several rapid changes of environmental legislation were made to enable the "trial." Environmentalists are concerned about the uptake of elemental silver in a highly sensitive environment affecting the pygmy possum amongst other species as well as recent high level algal blooms in once pristine glacial lakes. The ABC program Earthbeat on 17 July 2004 heard that not every cloud has a silver lining where concerns for the health of the pygmy possums was raised. Research 50 years ago and analysis by the former Snowy Mountains Authority led to the cessation of the cloud seeding program in the 1950s with non-definitive results. Formerly, cloud seeding was rejected in Australia on environmental grounds because of concerns about the protected species, the pygmy possum. Since silver iodide and not elemental silver is the cloud seeding material, the claims of negative environmental impact are disputed by peer-reviewed research as summarized by the international weather modification association

Basics of Cloud computing

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) provides a concise and specific definition:
Cloud computing is a model for enabling convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction.
Cloud computing provides computation, software, data access, and storage services that do not require end-user knowledge of the physical location and configuration of the system that delivers the services. Parallels to this concept can be drawn with the electricity grid, where end-users consume power without needing to understand the component devices or infrastructure required to provide the service.
Cloud computing describes a new supplement, consumption, and delivery model for IT services based on Internet protocols, and it typically involves provisioning of dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources It is a byproduct and consequence of the ease-of-access to remote computing sites provided by the Internet. This may take the form of web-based tools or applications that users can access and use through a web browser as if they were programs installed locally on their own computers.
Cloud computing providers deliver applications via the internet, which are accessed from a Web browser, while the business software and data are stored on servers at a remote location. In some cases, legacy applications (line of business applications which until now have been prevalent in thick client Windows computing) are delivered via a screen sharing technology such as Citrix XenApp, while the compute resources are consolidated at a remote data center location; in other cases entire business applications have been coded using web based technologies such as AJAX.
Most cloud computing infrastructures consist of services delivered through shared data-centers. The Cloud may appear as a single point of access for consumers' computing needs, notable examples include the iTunes Store, and the iPhone App Store. Commercial offerings may be required to meet service level agreements (SLAs), but specific terms are less often negotiated by smaller companies.

Comparisons of Cloud computing

Cloud computing shares characteristics with:
Autonomic computing — "computer systems capable of self-management."
Client–server model – client–server computing refers broadly to any distributed application that distinguishes between service providers (servers) and service requesters (clients).
Grid computing — "a form of distributed computing and parallel computing, whereby a 'super and virtual computer' is composed of a cluster of networked, loosely coupled computers acting in concert to perform very large tasks."
Mainframe computer — powerful computers used mainly by large organizations for critical applications, typically bulk data processing such as census, industry and consumer statistics, enterprise resource planning, and financial transaction processing.
Utility computing — the "packaging of computing resources, such as computation and storage, as a metered service similar to a traditional public utility, such as electricity.
Peer-to-peer – distributed architecture without the need for central coordination, with participants being at the same time both suppliers and consumers of resources (in contrast to the traditional client–server model).
Service-oriented computing – Cloud computing provides services related to computing while, in a reciprocal manner, service-oriented computing consists of the computing techniques that operate on software-as-a-service.

Open source cloud computing

Open source software has provided the foundation for many cloud computing implementations, one prominent example being the Hadoop framework. In November 2007, the Free Software Foundation released the Affero General Public License, a version of GPLv3 intended to close a perceived legal loophole associated with free software designed to be run over a network.
For many enterprises, cloud computing is becoming a reality in their IT infrastructures today. The technologies used by today's cloud environments, public and private, have been heavily based on open source software, which offers:

Robust application frameworks
Rapid development
Standards support
Vendor neutrality
Avoidance of vendor lock-in
To advance the development of open source cloud computing Red Hat is pleased to present its second online Open Source Cloud Computing Forum on February 10, 2010, hosted by Red Hat CTO Brian Stevens.
Backed by Rackspace, NASA, Dell, Citrix, Cisco, Canonical and over 50 other organizations, OpenStack has grown to be a global software community of developers, technologists, researchers and corporations collaborating on a standard and massively scalable open source cloud operating system. Our mission is to enable any organization to create and offer cloud computing services running on standard hardware.

Architecture of Cloud computing

Cloud architecture, the systems architecture of the software systems involved in the delivery of cloud computing, typically involves multiple cloud components communicating with each other over application programming interfaces, usually web services and 3-tier architecture. This resembles the Unix philosophy of having multiple programs each doing one thing well and working together over universal interfaces. Complexity is controlled and the resulting systems are more manageable than their monolithic counterparts.
The two most significant components of cloud computing architecture are known as the front end and the back end. The front end is the part seen by the client, i.e. the computer user. This includes the client’s network (or computer) and the applications used to access the cloud via a user interface such as a web browser. The back end of the cloud computing architecture is the ‘cloud’ itself, comprising various computers, servers and data storage devices.